Best Baitworms For Fishing

Scarcely any goads are as famous as worms. They beauty the snares of a wide assortment of fishers, including stick shaft using kids attempting to get catfish at the nearby river and developed grown-ups attempting to get roost while shuddering on a solidified lake.

They are even utilized by fishers savaging for walleye or attempting to get largemouth bass in weed-stifled lakes.

And keeping in mind that no trap works 100% of the time, worms are unquestionably probably the most ideal choice to attempt in most freshwater fishing circumstances.

In any case, to get the best outcomes, you’ll have to choose the correct worms for your objective species and the conditions, store them appropriately to keep them vivacious and new, and afterward utilize the correct sort of tackle to entice the nearby fish into gnawing.

We’ll talk about these things and more beneath, so you can boost the worth these amazing goads give and catch more (and greater) fish.

Species Selection: What’s on the Menu?

All worms are not made similarly, and some work preferred in certain conditions over others (unexpectedly, a considerable lot of the things fishers call “worms” are not in fact worms, yet that is not significant for our motivations here).

On the off chance that you need the most obvious opportunity with regards to progress, you’ll have to choose the correct worms for fishing bait. The absolute most famous kinds of worms incorporate the accompanying:

Nightcrawlers

The large kid of lure worms, the nightcrawler is maybe the most well known worm utilized by fishermen. Nightcrawler bundled available to be purchased as lure are generally very huge and earthy colored to dim in tone.

In view of their size, they for the most part inspire the consideration of bigger gamefish, for example, bass, catfish and walleyes, and you’ll require a genuinely enormous snare to help their mass.

A few fishermen use nightcrawlers to get panfish or trout, however it is regularly important to utilize just a little bit of a nightcrawler while doing as such, as unblemished nightcrawlers are for the most part to huge and scaring for fish with little mouths.

Red Wigglers

Named for their shading and propensity for squirming about unremittingly, red wigglers are the worm of decision for those looking for panfish or trout.

Red wigglers (which are additionally called red worms or treating the soil worms) are frequently cultivated for use in vermiculture, so they can once in a while be acquired in mass from non-customary retail courses.

Red wigglers can differ a piece in size, so enormous people are infrequently successful for getting bass.

Mealworms

Mealworms aren’t generally worms, they are the larval type of the mealworm creepy crawly – in the event that you look carefully, you’ll see that mealworms have three arrangements of legs like everything bugs do. In any case, fish couldn’t care less what people call them; they basically discover them delectable.

Mealworms are normally used to get little mouthed fish, for example, panfish and trout, however they’ll evoke consideration from little bass on occasion.

While most mealworms bundled for use as snare have arrived at their greatest size, you can frequently discover more modest mealworms bundled available to be purchased as nourishment for reptiles and different kinds of little pets.

Waxworms

Like mealworms, wax worms are really bugs; they are the larval type of little moths.

Waxworms have a high fat substance, which makes them particularly engaging snare for some fish. Waxworms are fairly short, however they have full little bodies, and they are ordinarily used to get panfish.

Bloodsuckers

Regardless of their name and parasitic propensities, leeches are really a sort of worm. Normally basic in numerous sea-going natural surroundings, many fish species make a propensity for eating leeches consistently.

Bloodsuckers can be acquired in an assortment of sizes, albeit genuinely enormous ones are generally normal, so they are commonly used to get walleye, bass and catfish.

Putting away Your Worms: Keep Them Fresh while You Fish

You can once in a while get fish with dead or dried worms, yet you’ll see that live, squirming worms are considerably more engaging gamefish. New, live worms won’t just draw in the consideration of fish outwardly, they’ll additionally scatter more aroma into the water as well.

In like manner, you’ll need to keep your worms as new and energetic as could reasonably be expected. Luckily, it isn’t difficult to do as such, and you can frequently keep a cup brimming with worms alive for a few distinctive fishing trips in the event that you are cautious.

The main activities are to keep the worms cool and fittingly soggy. In a perfect world, you’d approach a little fridge or cooler wherein you could keep the worms while you are fishing, yet this isn’t generally the situation.

In the event that this is preposterous, simply keep the worms refrigerated until the last conceivable second, and afterward keep them in the coolest, shadiest spot you can.

It is additionally essential to keep the earth in the worm cup soggy, to keep the worms from drying out (note that this isn’t fitting for mealworms and wax worms, which are commonly bundled in grains or wood shavings – they ought to be kept dry).

The most effortless approach to shield the worms from drying out is to just keep the top safely joined consistently.

In the event that you notice that the earth is drying out a piece, you can add a couple of drops of water to the cup. Simply abstain from oversaturating the dirt, as this will drive the worms to the surface and will inevitably make them pass on.

How the Hydraulic Pallet Jack Works

A pallet jack is a special piece of equipment that is used to move loads. The device is also called Rochley or rocket. Basically, the technique is used to maintain warehouses and increase the efficiency of receiving or shipping goods

Hydraulic trolleys differ from conventional wheelbarrows in design. The equipment is completed with hydraulic jacks. The mechanisms are designed to raise and lower loads along the entire length of the forks. Both operations are accompanied by the application of minimal physical effort on the part of the personnel.

In order to improve the convenience of work, pallet jack are often endowed with additional functions. For example, there is warehouse equipment with built-in scales. Hydraulic pallet jack of this type allow quick and accurate weighing of loads. It takes seconds to stabilize the readings.

Pallet jack design

The design of a modern standard hydraulic pallet jack necessarily includes the following components.

  • Handle with control lever.
  • Hydraulic unit.
  • Fork for cargo.
  • Front wheelset.

Due to the simplicity of their design, the bogies are characterized by reliability and durability. No special training is required to master the intricacies of pallet jack control. It takes no more than 10-15 minutes to understand the basic rules of working with pallet jack. It takes 1-2 shifts to gain the proper experience in using the device effectively.

Features of operation and how to choose pallet jack

In order for the warehouse trolley to serve as long as possible, before purchasing it, you need to figure out how to choose the right pallet jack that is right for your company spied in the pallet jack buyer’s guide on bestpavingtools.

The key component of any carriage is the hydraulic system. The hydraulics are driven by a pump. The task of the pump is to provide a predetermined level of air pressure. The hydraulic drive is located on a movable platform. The platform is controlled by a rotary handle.

The pallet is gripped with a pitchfork. To connect the elements to the hydraulic unit, lever-type corner consoles are used. Most of the pallet jack, which are now produced by manufacturers of warehouse equipment, capture cargo, both in the longitudinal and transverse directions.

One of the important advantages of pallet jack is a simple and understandable principle of operation. First, the forks of the bogie are rolled under the pallet, after which the grab is carried out. Then the cargo is transported to the desired distance and removed. The lift-to-height function greatly simplifies the installation of products on racks.

Types of pallet jack

Depending on the design, hydraulic carts are divided into 8 main types.

Standard pallet jack. Relatively inexpensive devices with a lifting capacity of up to 2 tons. Provided that they are equipped with wear-resistant wheels, the trolleys are used not only indoors, but also outdoors. At the moment, this type of pallet jack is the most popular.

Wide pallet jack. Carts for transportation of non-standard or oversized products. The chassis and equipment housings are made of high strength materials, which guarantees safe work. The distance between the pallet forks is up to 0.85 m.

Weighing trolleys. For such pallet jack, devices for measuring the mass of the load are located above the waterworks. The load cells are built into the forks. The normal error of devices is 0.5-1 kg. The equipment is powered by compact batteries, which must be recharged periodically.

Scissor pallet jack. Ideal for the price and quality option for work where there is often a need to lift loads to a height. The products are installed on a solid platform that resembles a low table on wheels. Lifting up is done in automatic or manual mode.

Titans. The name of the bogies is explained by the characteristic of the carrying capacity, which in some models reaches 5 tons. For trouble-free operation, the equipment is equipped with hydraulics with a high degree of protection. High-quality machinery maintains good maneuverability even at maximum load.

Short pallet jack. The devices are equipped with short forks, which reduces the size. Compact rockers are optimal for warehouses with limited space for the passage of special equipment. The equipment easily passes between the pallet jack and easily fits into the trunk of cars.

Low profile carts. Specialized pallet jack that increase the efficiency of cargo handling with European or American pallets. The forks of the devices rise above the floor surface by no more than 35 mm. The maximum lifting height reaches 20 cm.

Long pallet jack. Trolleys with fork grips up to 2 m. Although rohls are designed to transport bulky goods, the devices are often used to transport standard pallets or pallets. The devices belong to warehouse equipment of the middle price category.

Types of special purpose trolleys

  • Pallet jack from stainless steel.
  • Equipment for the transportation of rolls.
  • Highly maneuverable pallet jacks.

Stainless steel hydraulic trucks are used at facilities where increased requirements are imposed on warehouse equipment with regard to resistance to moisture, acids, alkalis and salts. Pallet jack for rolls are made with triangular forks. Highly maneuverable pallet jacks are equipped with special rollers for lateral movement, which make it possible to drive sideways between obstacles.

Tips for the correct use of pallet jack

  • Never place products weighing more than the maximum load capacity on trolleys. Otherwise, the hydraulic system will quickly become unusable.
  • To prevent deformation of the forks, distribute the load evenly between both pallet picks.
  • Check the roller bearings regularly. Make sure that no dust and foreign objects get there. This applies equally to street dirt.
  • Pump fluid into the slave cylinder at full range of motion of the pallet jack control handle.
  • To avoid premature wheel wear, try not to use the pallet jacks on uneven, heavily soiled or rough floor surfaces.

Sources

https://www.mccallhandling.com/pallet-jack-guide/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallet_jack

6 Steps to Select the Right Fertilizer

Plants require nutrients to grow. The most important of these are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, as well as calcium and magnesium. There are also many other nutrients that plants need in very small quantities, such as boron, manganese, iron, zinc and others. They are called micronutrients, so, as the name implies, they are required in micro doses. On fertilizer packaging, nutrients are always marked with a symbol for the chemical element. You may find out what exactly amount of fertilizer you need with the help of npk fertilizer finder service.

N = nitrogen
P = phosphorus
K = Kalium
Ca = potassium
Mg = magnesium

Important: Always fertilize purposefully. There are special fertilizers for each group of plants.

Step 1 – Determining Nutrient Deficiency

Determining Nutrient Deficiency

Various symptoms indicate a lack of nutrients: poor growth, discoloration of the leaves. Depending on the type of nutrient deficiency, various signs appear, such as lighter leaves, brown or black spots, or dry leaf edges.

Conveniently:  After examining the leaves or plant parts you brought, he can tell what the plant lacks and what fertilizers are needed to eliminate the deficiency.

Important: Leaf discoloration can be caused by heat, too little or too much water, or too much or too little light. Plant protection chemicals can also cause harm, which is reflected in leaf discoloration.

Step 2 – Soil sample to determine the lack of fertilizers.

Soil sample to determine the lack of fertilizers

The nutrients are stored in the soil and are slowly released by microorganisms. Therefore, plants can receive them along with moisture in the soil. A soil sample will tell you how much is in your garden and whether additional fertilization is recommended. For example, the soil in most gardens contains a sufficient amount of phosphorus, and it needs more nitrogen fertilization.

Important: Collect samples from different parts of the flower bed and mix them thoroughly. This is the only way to get a reliable result.

Step 3 – Choosing the Right Fertilizers

Fertilizers are divided into mineral (chemical, synthetic) and organic (natural). Mineral fertilizers dissolve in water, and therefore the plant can easily assimilate them. Benefit: fast absorption of nutrients. Disadvantage: Fertilizer that did not immediately pick up the plant is easily washed off into a deeper soil layer, into which the roots do not penetrate. Organic fertilizers such as horn shavings and cow dung pellets slowly release their nutrients to the soil and plant roots. Advantage: There is very little danger of over-fertilization. Disadvantage: The action starts after a couple of days or weeks.

Convenient: With organic fertilizers, the soil will be safe and the nutrients will be released over time.

Important: “The more the better.” This is the wrong strategy in fertilizer handling. Too high a dosage of nutrients harms the plants.

Step 4 – Application of fertilizers

Granular or granular fertilizers can be placed by hand or using a trolley. Wear gloves when laying as many fertilizers can irritate the skin.

Convenient: Dry fertilizers are easy to dose.

Important: Measure the amount of fertilizer per square meter with a household scale or measuring glass. If you are unsure, you can practice measuring the correct amount using sand.

Step 5 – Spreading the compost

Spreading the compost

After you have placed a layer of compost with a height of 3-5 centimeters on the flowerbed, you should level it with a rake. Digging it up, as is often advised, is not required. Organisms that live in the soil, such as earthworms, will allow organic material to penetrate deeper layers of the soil.

Important: Compost contains a lot of nutrients, this should be taken into account when following additional fertilization. The need for soil and plants in phosphorus and potassium is almost completely replenished by compost. You can add missing nitrogen by adding horn shavings.

Step 6 – Liquid Fertilizer

Liquid Fertilizer

If there is an acute nutritional deficiency, you can quickly correct it with liquid fertilizer. There are liquid fertilizers containing one active nutrient and complex fertilizers containing all the nutrients the plant needs. To prepare a nutrient solution for fertilization, salt or a concentrated fertilizer solution is mixed with water and this is used to water the plants. Liquid fertilizer is also suitable for fertilizing the leaves through which nutrients are also absorbed.

Convenient: Fast effect, also as a foliar fertilizer.

Important: Carefully follow the dosage instructions, because too high a dosage will damage leaves and roots. In the worst case, the plant can die. If in doubt, it is better to make the dosage less than indicated on the package.

Sources:

http://soilquality.org/basics/value.html

 

A Guide to Choosing the Best Garden Sprayer

Tis the season for cultivating and keeping up your grass. Also, that implies you’ll have to put resources into the best gear to deal with your prized greens.

There are heaps of various approaches to fight bugs, however the best nursery sprayer that you can get your hands on is one of the best approaches to kill them. There are additionally a couple of various types of nursery sprayers accessible with the goal that you can pick one that suits your project(s) best.

Never again will you need to stress over your nursery plants or yard getting slaughtered by utilizing an excess of shower of one kind or the following. With a nursery sprayer, you’ll have the option to screen precisely how much herbicide or pesticide makes it onto your plants.

In the event that you’re thinking about what the best nursery sprayer is, at that point you’ve gone to the correct spot. In this article, we’re talking about your alternatives.

Choosing the Type of Garden Sprayer You Will Need

The initial step is distinguishing how huge of a zone needs treatment. Nursery sprayers fluctuate significantly from one quart to four gallons. It won’t be hard to discover one that addresses your issues. A few regions can be spot treated with limited quantities of pesticides. Enormous nurseries or yards need a huge limit garden sprayer. There is an assortment of nursery sprayers to look over.

Hose End Sprayer:

In case you’re searching for a straightforward method to apply item to a bigger nursery territory, a hose end best garden sprayer is the most straightforward and most affordable nursery sprayer type. You should simply add the concentrated concoction to the container and alter the spout to decide the sum that is being apportioned and shower. The water originating from the hose weakens the blend for the ideal application.

Siphon Sprayer:

Otherwise called pressure garden sprayers, these are the most generally utilized kind of nursery sprayer. Add concentrated material to the tank and fill to the pre-stamped line with water before utilizing. The siphon handle on the highest point of the sprayer pressurizes whatever air stays in the tank. Utilize the wand to apply the concoction to the particular territory you wish to treat. This application is controlled and exact, however probably won’t be best for huge territories.

Knapsack Sprayer:

On the off chance that you have somewhat bigger of a territory to treat, you should think about purchasing a rucksack sprayer. These nursery sprayers work a similar path as a hand siphon sprayer. The thing that matters is they are worn on your back with a fold over wand. The wand apportions the concoction. The over the shoulder design enables you to convey the heavier heap of fluid synthetic compounds simpler than a hand held nursery sprayer. In the event that you would prefer not to manage taking the unit off to siphon, discover a unit with a switch siphon at the edge to pack the fluid for kept showering.

Haul Behind or ATV Sprayer:

On the off chance that you have a huge territory that you have to treat, a haul behind sprayer may be what you need. These nursery sprayers connect to the back of an ATV. They give superb shower inclusion over huge territories, for example, fence columns, crops or even stops. The quantity of blasts, or concoction allocators, relies upon the sprayer. The more blasts, the bigger the zone that can be secured without a moment’s delay. These nursery sprayers likewise have a hose you can use for exact application when you’re not hauling the unit behind an ATV.

Spot Sprayer:

Spot sprayers are an extraordinary choice to haul behind nursery sprayers. They can be mounted on a wide range of utilizations, not only an ATV. These nursery sprayers are utilized for enormous territories with a showering wand. This contrasts from the blast sprayer use of the haul behind units. Likewise with the ATV sprayers, a high stream siphon is utilized to circulate the synthetic compounds on to the zone.

Tips for Spraying Fertilizers and Pesticides

Garden sprayers can make yard care simple and helpful, however it’s essential to focus on a few subtleties when utilizing them to apply manures and pesticides (which incorporates bug sprays and herbicides).

1. Practice Safe Spraying

Manures and pesticides are synthetic concoctions that can cause genuine mischief. Notwithstanding, a couple of security safeguards will guarantee that they’re utilized appropriately:

  • Weaken synthetic compounds outside or in a well-ventilated zone per maker headings
  • Never combine numerous synthetic concoctions in a sprayer
  • Ensure no pets or youngsters are close by
  • Wear defensive dress, including goggles, gloves, long jeans, long-sleeved shirts, and shut toe shoes
  • Abstain from splashing on breezy days
  • After use, wash your hands before eating, drinking, or smoking

2. Change Your Flow Rate

Sprayer Flow RateYour sprayer’s stream rate (the rate at which fluid goes through the spout) will change after some time because of mileage just as obstructing of the parts.

Keeping up and cleaning your sprayer’s parts will assist you with accomplishing a predictable stream rate for the duration of the life of the sprayer. In any case, if your sprayer has been very much kept up and you just need to splash progressively fluid, you can build your stream rate either by expanding the weight in your manual siphon sprayer or expanding the RPMs of your motor or engine in your gas or battery-fueled sprayer.

3. Splash at the Proper Times

Regardless of whether you’re splashing a manure or a pesticide, there will be explicit occasions at which that substance will be best. Think about these instances of prescribed occasions for utilizing a sprayer:

  • To maintain a strategic distance from float, broadleaf herbicides ought to be splashed on dry days when the temperature will be no higher than 85°F and the breeze speed no higher than 5 mph
  • Because of bug action, bug sprays are best when splashed in the early morning or at dusk
  • To maintain a strategic distance from mischief to plants, gardens ought to be splashed with fluid compost throughout the fall as opposed to during the warm summer months
  • Since foliar (leaf) composts give momentary supplement supports, they can be showered on plant leaves during the plant’s dynamic developing season

By following these tips, you can appreciate the most from your plants as well as the most from your yard or nursery sprayer also.

Homemade Mushroom Compost

Figure out how to make your own natural mushroom fertilizer at home to help improve your nursery! Or then again make false mushroom fertilizer. In any case, you’ll have the option to become immense, fruitful plants with this stunning expansion to your dirt.

So as to consummate your nursery, mushroom manure is one of the correct augmentations you can make to upgrade the nursery soil. Here in this article, we will reveal some insight into how to make natural mushroom fertilizer for your nursery.

Since there are numerous sorts of manure, you should comprehend what mushroom fertilizer is, as it offers supplements and help develop sound plants. Give us a chance to perceive what Mushroom manure is!

WHAT IS MUSHROOM COMPOST?

Mushroom manure is a natural compost which gradually discharges into the nursery soil and is made with soil that has just been utilized to develop mushrooms.

As the mushrooms develop, the straw and excrement used to support the procedure, separates leaving a wonderful dull soil that would then be able to be utilized to create incredible home nursery results!

Instructions to MAKE ORGANIC MUSHROOM COMPOST FOR YOUR GARDEN

Generally, mushroom fertilizer is made by mushroom producers with natural materials they as of now have comprising of the dirt where they developed mushrooms, straw, corn cobs, bodies, and roughage.

On the off chance that you are growing mushrooms at home, the way toward making mushroom fertilizer is basic!

Stage 1:

To begin with, blend the dirt, straw, fertilizer, and mushroom microbes together and permit the enormous heaps of mushroom manure to sit for 30 to 60 days to warm it up. In this timespan, the microscopic organisms feed on the straw and chicken compost that give the vast majority of the basic supplements

Stage 2:

In the wake of gathering your mushrooms, you’ll have to give the fertilizer a chance to process down so’s it’s safe for nursery use.

Utilizing “new” mushroom manure can cause nitrogen consumes (also called compost consume) or different issues for your nursery. Along these lines, you’ll need to process the manure a piece before utilizing it.

Stage 3:

During the handling weeks, you’ll have to screen the mushroom manure, to guarantee that heap keeps up the satisfactory temperature which is necessities to remain at 140°F least to accomplish purification.

Monetarily, this is finished by infusing steam at 140°F into the heap of manure. At home it might be somewhat trickier and you can skip it on the off chance that you have to. Simply turn your manure periodically (every few days) so enable it to separate more. Do this for about a month.

Notwithstanding, the steam warming procedure is best as it guarantees that you won’t have mushrooms springing up all around your nursery. In spite of the fact that that may at present occur. The warming procedure additionally murders different pathogens, bug hatchlings, and weed seeds so your manure is nursery prepared!

Stage 4:

When the fertilizer purification procedure is finished, at that point you have to enable the manure to cool before using. Compost must be lower than 90°F OR the encompassing air temperature before applying to your nursery, generally the seeds will overheat and kick the bucket.

Along these lines, for instance, on the off chance that the air is 100°, at that point 100° soil would likewise be fine.

The final product of this exertion is that the mushroom fertilizer is consummately prepared to use in growing an excellent nursery. After the finishing of one treating the soil cycle, the extra manure is utilized as a compost to planters, scene supply firms, general temporary workers and nurseries.

Advantages OF MUSHROOM COMPOST:

We should dig further into the quantity of advantages that mushroom fertilizer offers:

Right off the bat, it is the most affordable manure to put resources into dissimilar to different manures or fertilizer. It isn’t simply take benevolent yet in addition advances the dirt extraordinarily and gives basic supplements to the solid development of plants.

Utilizing mushroom manure likewise improves the water holding limit of the dirt which pleasantly diminishes the ordinary watering needs of your nursery.

A significant number of the nursery plants are incredibly profited with the mushroom fertilizer when added to the dirt where you are developing natural products, blossoms, herbs, and vegetables.

So as to harvest the ideal results, ensure that the mushroom manure is sufficiently blended with the nursery soil. You can likewise leave it to sit over the winter season appropriately and kick start the cultivating the following spring.

The most effective method to Make Mock Mushroom Compost

While mushroom manure may appear to be a ton of exertion, you can likewise get a great deal of similar advantages from making your own counterfeit mushroom fertilizer.

Stage 1:

To make fake mushroom fertilizer, simply consolidate soil, straw, and excrement. Chicken, or cow excrement is generally utilized, yet you can likewise utilize other creature compost.

Stage 2:

Blend about 40% soil, 40% straw, and 20% excrement in a huge heap until altogether consolidated.

Stage 3:

Keep on turning the dirt at regular intervals, making a point to get the most profound pieces of the heap blended well. As you blend, check the water substance of the dirt. You need it to be sodden, yet not dousing.

Stage 4:

Turn the heap at any rate multiple times, with a multi week delay in the middle of turnings. As you turn, ensure the focal point of the heap is warming up well. In the event that it isn’t getting warm, at more fertilizer to the blend and consolidate well.

The warmth is the thing that helps execute any undesirable microorganisms and organisms.

Stage 5:

When the heap has been turned in any event multiple times, spread the manure with a canvas and permit to age at any rate one month before utilizing.

In the event that you can give it a chance to age longer, at that point it will be far and away superior for your nurseries. Age as long as a half year before utilizing.

TO SUM UP

In this way, by following the tips, you can undoubtedly make organic mushroom manure for your nursery. Or on the other hand skirt the mushrooms all together and make your very own false mushroom fertilizer!

Regardless of which fertilizer type you pick, you’ll have stunning nursery results to appreciate from all your diligent work!

Winter Weather Water for Chickens and Dog

This post shows homemade watering devices for both chickens and dogs.

The picture below shows a simple dry wall mud pan that can be purchased at any building supply store.  The pictures to follow will show how it is used

The next photo shows the pan in place sitting on a wooden shelf with about two inches protruding into the hen house.

Note the pan has some light showing through the wall.  This is from light bulbs placed there to keep the water from freezing.

The next photo was taken on the outside of the hen house. The photo below shows a five-gallon water jug upside down with the small end of the jug placed inside the pan. As the hens drink and the water level lowers to let air in, then more water will enter the pan. Not obvious in this photo is a piece of metal in the bottom of the pan to hold the jug off the bottom so air can enter the jug before the level of water gets too low in the pan.

I use two lights from drop cords to give more heat, and as a precaution should one of the bulbs burn out.  The board to the right of the jug is a 12 inch wide board with hinges that serves as a door on the outside of the hen house.

The final photo for the chicken watering device is showing an inside view.  Note that the pan is elevated off the floor and a concrete block allows the hens to get access to the water.  The elevated position prevents the hens from scratching litter into the water pan.  The biggest challenge for this type watering device is quickly placing the jug of water in the pan without spilling too much water.

The next photo shows a different type watering device, one I use for our working Border Collie dog. The photo below shows a water bucket sitting on top of a wooden box with a hole cut in the top for the bucket.  You can see a light placed inside the box.

The last photo below shows the bucket placed in the hole on the top of the box. The hole cut in the plywood box is cut so the bucket is elevated off the floor enough so the electric drop cord can fit below the bucket and the hole is closed off once the bucket is in place. This is a simple but very effective way to keep water from freezing in our dog kennel.